A retrospective study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intrapleural alteplase in pediatric empyema
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of medical sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Data akceptacji: 06-05-2024
Data publikacji online: 07-06-2024
Introduction: Medical treatment of pediatric empyema consists of appropriate antibiotics, chest tube insertion, and intrapleural fibrinolytic drugs to facilitate pleural drainage. There is a lack of consensus about the drug of choice for fibrinolytic therapy, so this study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intrapleural alteplase in pediatric empyema. Material and Methods: The medical records of all children with empyema treated with intrapleural alteplase at a university hospital between January 2016 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Efficacy outcomes were assessed by chest tube output before and after the first dose of alteplase, pleural fluid volume before and after therapy, a need for surgical intervention, and length of hospital stay. Safety was assessed by the frequency and severity of side effects. Results: 40 children aged 2 months to 9 years hospitalized with empyema received intrapleural alteplase. Thirty patients (75%) experienced full recovery after three doses of intrapleural alteplase. The median length of hospital stay was 16 days. Chest tube output increased significantly after the first dose of alteplase. Pleural fluid volume decreased significantly after treatment. The most common side effect was pain (30%). Two patients experienced severe complications: 1 had a pulmonary hemorrhage and the other experienced a bronchopleural fistula. These patients recovered fully spontaneously. Conclusions: According to our results, the administration of intrapleural alteplase was safe and effective in facilitating pleural drainage in pediatric patients with empyema. However, further clinical trials will be needed to determine the optimal dose, frequency, and duration of intrapleural alteplase treatment.
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