Salmonellosis in Poland in 2021
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National Institute of Public Health NIH – National Research Institute Department of Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Surveillance Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego PZH – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Zakład Epidemiologii Chorób Zakaźnych i Nadzoru
Submission date: 2023-11-17
Acceptance date: 2024-04-30
Publication date: 2024-05-20
Przegl Epidemiol 2023;77(4):504-519
AIM. The aim of the article is to present and assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2021, in relation to previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The assessment of the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland was made on the basis of individual data on salmonellosis cases, entered by sanitary-epidemiological stations into the EpiBaza System, data on outbreaks caused by Salmonella bacilli from the Registry of Epidemic Outbreaks System (ROE), as well as on the basis of aggregated data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases and Poisoning in Poland" (NIPH NIH – NRI, GIS, Warsaw), including information sent by laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations, data from the article on the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2020 and data from the Demographic Research Department of the Central Statistical Office. RESULTS. In 2021, in Poland sanitary-epidemiological stations registered 8,294 cases of salmonellosis – 8,014 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 280 extra-intestinal salmonellosis, including 190 cases of salmonellosis septicemia. The incidence rate for total salmonellosis was 21.7/100,000 population, for intestinal salmonellosis 21.0, for salmonellosis septicemia 0.50, and 0.23 per 100,000 population for other extra-intestinal infections of salmonellosis etiology. The reported 7,988 cases were classified as confirmed and 306 as probable. There were 5,127 hospitalizations due to salmonellosis, mainly children and the elderly. The peak of the incidence was registered in July. The highest incidence rate of salmonellosis in 2021 was recorded in the Podkarpackie voivodeship (39.8/100,000 population), the lowest in the Świętokrzyskie voivodeship (10.7/100,000 population). The highest incidence of intestinal salmonellosis was registered in the age group 0-4 years, accounting for 44.2% of the total number of cases. Among extra-intestinal infections, almost 62% of cases occurred in people aged 60+. In 2021, sanitary-epidemiological stations were detected and reported 229 outbreaks of food poisoning caused by Salmonella bacilli, 75% of them was Enteritidis serotype. In 2021, the most frequently isolated serotypes were S. Enteritidis 72%, S. Typhimurium (2%) and S. Infantis (0.5%). The serotype was not determined in 24.3% of cases. There were 24 imported cases of salmonellosis from different regions of the world. Due to Salmonella infection 11 people died in 2021. Laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations performed 438,183 tests for the presence of Salmonella and Shigella bacilli among humans, 92% of these tests concerned people working in contact with food. CONCLUSIONS. In 2021, there was an increase in the number of salmonellosis cases in Poland, compared to 2020. It can therefore be concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic did not have a long-term impact on reducing the number of Salmonella infections. At the same time, despite the increase, the situation of salmonellosis in Poland has not fully returned to the state before the COVID-19 pandemic.The area where we observe a significant difference, is the percentage of hospitalizations, which is the lowest in 2021 since 1998. It can be assumed, that one of the reasons for this, could be a stricter qualification of people with milder symptoms for hospital treatment, in favour of outpatient care.
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