Listeriosis in Poland in 2012-2021
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National Institute of Public Health NIH – National Research Institute Department of Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Surveillance Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego PZH – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy Zakład Epidemiologii Chorób Zakaźnych i Nadzoru
Submission date: 2023-11-17
Acceptance date: 2024-04-24
Publication date: 2024-05-20
Przegl Epidemiol 2023;77(4):531-543
AIM. The aim of the study is to present and evaluate the epidemiological situation of listeriosis in Poland in the years 2012-2021. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The analysis material consisted of data from individual epidemiological case reports on listeriosis submitted to the Department of Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of the NIPH NIH - NRI by state sanitaryepidemiological stations in the form of paper questionnaires (2012-2019) and in the electronic form through the EpiBaza system (2020 and 2021), as well as aggregated data from the bulletin "Infectious Diseases and Poisoning in Poland". RESULTS. Between 2012 and 2021, a total of 896 cases of listeriosis were registred in Poland. The median incidence was 0.23 per 100,000 population, which was an increase by 52.2% compared to the previous 5-year period (2007-2011). Every year, more than 90% of cases were hospitalized. The highest percentage of patients were in the age group >60 years old (65.5%). From 2012 to 2019 (in the years when information on cases was collected on a paper form), a total of 275 deaths of patients from listeriosis were recorded (38.4% of all reported cases). According to data from the EpiBaza system, in 2020 and 2021 there were 5 (8.33%) and 25 (20.83%) deaths due to listeriosis. A total of 92.1% of patients with listeriosis had significant predisposing factors for the occurrence of this disease, most of which were associated with neoplasia and heart disease and were present in half of all cases. As part of routine surveillance, no epidemic outbreak associated with Listeria monocytogenes infection was reported in Poland in the years 2012-2021.A total number of 49 pregnant women with listeriosis were reported during described period. Between 2012 and 2021, 37 cases of congenital listeriosis were reported. The median of incidence was 1.07/100 thousand live births, a decrease of 26% compared to the previous 5-year period (2007-2011). Of all congenital infections in newborns, 12 deaths (32.43%) were reported. CONCLUSIONS. The epidemiology of listeriosis is changing both in the EU/EEA countries and in Poland: the incidence is increasing and the distribution of cases in different age groups is changing, affecting primarily the elderly, especially those with predisposing diseases. Although 2020 tere was a decrease in the number of cases at EU level, possibly related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the overall trend of listeriosis cases isincreasing. The clinical condition has a significant impact on the course of L. monocytogenes infection: in healthy people, infection is usually asymptomatic. The disease primarily affects immunocompromised people. In contrast, infection of pregnant women can lead to premature birth, miscarriage, meningitis and neonatal sepsis with mortality rate of 20-30%. The growing trend in listeriosis is alarming and requires greater attention in terms of prevention and control of the disease.
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